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Lucca is famous all over the world for its city walls, entirely intact. The walls were built as a deterrent against possible atatcks from Florence, in a period going from 1504 and 1645 and their integrity is bound to the fact that they were never used to defend from enemies attacks. The only occasion in which their efficency was proved was during the Serchio flood in 1805, when the gates were sealed using matresses and straw. During the nineteenth century, when the defensive purpose reneiged, the walls were transformed in a promenade, and today represents the most typical Lucca hangout.
The historical centre preserves many medieval churches, in fact Lucca is nicknamed "the city of 100 churches". The most famous are San Michele and San Martino Cathedral, inside which is exhibited the most famous sculpture of Lucca, the funeral monument to Ilaria del Carretto, wife of Lord Paolo Guinigi. Realized Jacopo della Quercia, a sculptor from Siena, between 1406 and 1408, the sarcophagus never hosted Ilaria's spoils, preserved in Villa Guinigi chapel.
Another place to mention is Piazza dell'Anfiteatro, born on the ruins of an ancient roman theatre ellipsis shaped, was recovered in the nineteenth century by the architect Lorenzo Nottolini, and today hosts many cafes and cultural events.
The main street of the city, Via Fillungo, has a medieval imprinting, and hosts today mostly old shops and shops of the most famous brands. Its name derives from Fillongo di Garfagnana, where the Falabrina family, living in Via Fillungo, had a feud.
In the Middle Ages, the historical centre was enriched by circa 250 towers and bell towers. The only evidence of the towers is Torre Guinigi, erected in '300, that has some holms on its top, simbolizing the rebirth of Lucca that was happening in that period. The roof garden can be reached using 230 steps, and lets see the city and the surrounding hills.
Piazza Napoleone, also known as Piazza Grande, was ordered by Elisa Bonaparte Baciocchi in 1806; it was built by demolishing many buildings to show gratitude towards the emperor, Elisa's brother, and to give more breath to the Palazzo Ducale that faces the square, and today hosts the province offices.
On a square next to Piazza Napoleone, Piazza del Giglio, there is the namesake thatre, Teatro del Giglio.